Is Well Water Safe To Drink?

We independently review everything we recommend. If you buy through our links, we may earn a commission. Learn More.
Is Well Water Safe To Drink

Well water is an essential source of drinking water for many people, especially those living in rural areas. Unlike municipal water supplies, which are treated and monitored regularly, well water is not subject to the same regulations. This raises the question, is well water safe to drink?

The short answer is yes, well water is generally safe to drink. However, well water safety depends on several factors, including the water’s source, the well’s location, and the treatment methods used to remove contaminants. Read on to learn more about what you can do to ensure your private well water is safe to drink.

What Makes Well Water Safe To Drink?

Well water can be safe to drink if properly treated and free from harmful contaminants. Over 43 million Americans, or around 15 percent of the total population, get their water supply from domestic (private) wells. 

However, domestic well water is not governed by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act or, in most cases, state laws regarding its quality and safety. Hence, it becomes the responsibility of individual households to manage their private well systems and monitor the water quality. Well water is safe to drink if:

  1. The well water is properly constructed and well-maintained: You must ensure the well is properly located, constructed, and sealed to prevent contamination from surrounding soil and groundwater. Regular maintenance of the well components, such as the pump, filter, and storage tank, is also vital to ensure the water remains clean and safe to drink.
  2. There is a use of water treatment methods: The type of treatment required will depend on the specific contaminant and the level of contamination. Common treatment methods include disinfection, filtration, and ion exchange. Disinfection methods, such as chlorination or UV radiation, kill or inactivate microorganisms in the water.
  3. Water testing is done regularly: Regular well water testing is necessary to identify any potential contaminants and ensure that the water is safe to drink.

What Are The Potential Problems With Well Water?

While it can be a great alternative to municipal water, problems can arise from using well water. The water from wells can become contaminated, leading to serious health issues if not addressed promptly. The problems are: 

Harmful Contaminants

Well water can be contaminated with disease-causing microorganisms, nitrates, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and radionuclides. These contaminants can harm human health and cause various health problems, including gastrointestinal illnesses, reproductive issues, and cancer.

Note that harmful contaminants in the well water can either trigger an immediate reaction in people exposed to high concentrations, or they might accumulate in the body over time and cause chronic diseases. 

Aesthetic Problems

Well water can also have aesthetic problems, which do not necessarily pose a health risk but can still be unpleasant. Aesthetic problems can include issues such as water hardness, which can cause mineral buildup in appliances and plumbing, and issues with color, taste, and odor. 

For example, well water may have a metallic taste or a rotten egg smell due to the presence of sulfur or other minerals.

Appliances and Plumbing

Well water can also cause problems with appliances and plumbing. Hard water, which contains high levels of minerals like calcium and magnesium, can cause mineral buildup in pipes and appliances, reducing their efficiency and lifespan. For example, iron and manganese in well water can cause staining of fixtures and clothing.

Common Contaminants In Well Water And Their Negative Effects

Home Water Contaminants

Well water is a valuable source of drinking water for many households, but it can be affected by a range of contaminants that can negatively affect human health. Let’s look closer at these contaminants, their adverse effects on human health, and the treatment methods available to remove them from well water.


Microorganisms are one of the most common contaminants found in well water. Bacteria like E. coli and coliform bacteria can cause gastrointestinal illnesses like diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Viruses like Norovirus and Hepatitis A can also be present in well water and cause disease. Testing for bacteria is recommended to do at least once per year.

Best Treatment

The treatment for microorganisms in well water depends on the type and level of contamination. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, chlorination disinfection, and ozonation are common methods for treating microorganisms in well water.


Nitrates are a form of nitrogen that can come from fertilizers, animal waste, and sewage. High levels of nitrates in drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia, a condition also known as a blue baby syndrome, which can be fatal to infants.

Best Treatment

The treatment for nitrates in well water is to install a reverse osmosis system, ion exchange system, or distillation system. Another effective method of removing nitrates is to use a nitrate-specific resin in a water softener.

Heavy Metals

Heavy metals can be present in well water. These contaminants can cause a variety of health problems, including neurological disorders, cancer, and developmental problems in children. Examples of heavy metals are:

  • Arsenic. Arsenic in well water is a common problem in many parts of the world, including the United States. It is a toxic heavy metal that can cause cancer and other health problems.
  • Iron. Iron in well water can cause staining of fixtures and clothing. It can also cause a metallic taste in the water.
  • Magnesium. Magnesium is a common mineral found in well water. While magnesium is not harmful to human health, it can cause hard water, which can lead to mineral buildup in pipes and appliances.
  • Chromium. High levels of chromium in well water can be caused by industrial pollution or natural sources. It can cause cancer and other health problems.
  • Lead. It is a toxic heavy metal that can cause neurological disorders and developmental problems in children. Lead can enter well water from old plumbing systems or from industrial pollution.
  • Copper. Copper in well water can be caused by corrosion of copper pipes or from natural sources. This heavy metal can cause gastrointestinal illnesses and other health problems. 
Best Treatment

The treatment for heavy metals in well water depends on the type and level of contamination. Treatment methods include reverse osmosis, activated carbon filtration, and ion exchange. Read our comprehensive guide to iron removal systems for well water.

Volatile Organic Compounds

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of chemicals that can be found in well water. VOCs can come from industrial pollution, pesticides, dyes, paints, pharmaceuticals, and gasoline. Exposure to VOCs can cause a variety of health problems, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, and cancer.

Best Treatment

The treatment for VOCs in well water is to install an activated carbon filtration system or aeration system.


Radionuclides are radioactive elements that can be found in well water. These are uranium, radon, and radium, which occur naturally in the bedrock. However, they are often introduced to the ground from unregulated coal, oil, and nuclear industry waste disposal. Such contaminants are responsible for causing cancer in various organs.

Best Treatment

The treatment for radionuclides in well water is to install a granular activated carbon system or a reverse osmosis system.

What Causes Well Water Contamination

Well Water Safety

Well water contamination is a serious concern affecting many people worldwide. It can lead to a variety of health problems and can also cause damage to the environment.  There are several factors that can cause well water contamination, and it is essential to understand them to ensure the safety and quality of the water. There are four main culprits that are most commonly responsible for contaminating well water:

Improper Construction and Decomposition

If the well is not properly constructed, it can allow contaminants to enter it. This can be due to a lack of proper lining or casing or poor sealant between the well and surrounding soil. 

Decomposing animal and plant matter can also contaminate well water, mainly if it is located near a septic system or animal feedlot.

Location Of The Well

If the well is located near a septic system or animal feedlot, it can become contaminated with bacteria and other harmful contaminants. This is because these systems can leak and seep into the groundwater, which can then contaminate the well water. Similarly, if the well is located near an industrial area or a landfill, it can become contaminated with chemicals and other hazardous materials.

Water And Irrigation Runoff

Runoff from agricultural fields and other sources can contain pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals that can contaminate well water. These chemicals can easily enter the groundwater and travel to the well. Additionally, if there is flooding in the area, this can also cause contaminants to enter the well.

Mining Or Construction Nearby

Chemicals and other contaminants from mining or construction sites can enter the groundwater and contaminate well water. This is especially true if mining or construction activities involve chemicals or other hazardous materials. Additionally, if the mining or construction activities disturb the soil or rock formations near the well, this can cause contaminants to enter the well.

How To Test For Well Water Contaminants

Regular testing of well water is crucial for ensuring its safety and quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that well owners test their water at least once a year for total dissolved solids, nitrates, coliform bacteria, and alkalinity. These contaminants can pose serious health risks, including stomach illness, cancer, and developmental problems in children. 

There are two main ways to test for well water contaminants: laboratory well water tests and bacteria test kits.

Laboratory Well Water Test

A laboratory well water test is the most comprehensive way to test for contaminants in well water. A water sample is collected and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The laboratory can test for a variety of contaminants, including bacteria, nitrates, heavy metals, VOCs, and radionuclides.

Note: There are also other circumstances where well water testing is necessary. Aside from regular testing, you need to test your water’s quality in situations like:

  • If you have recently repaired or replaced your well system
  • If you receive an alert that your local groundwater has been polluted.
  • If there has been any land disturbance or flooding in your area.

Furthermore, changes in taste, odor, or color could indicate the presence of contaminants in your water, even if they are not typically tested for during routine well water testing. If you notice any changes in your well water, it is crucial to get it tested promptly to ensure the safety and quality of your drinking water.

Remember, testing your well water is the best way to ensure it’s safe for you and your family to drink. recommend using the Freshnss Labs well water test kits. They test for dozens of well water contaminants and the turnaround time is only 4 days once the lab receives the test.

Laboratory Well Water Test

Tests for dozens of water contaminants including bacteria
Designed specifically for private wells
Analyzed in a certified laboratory
Fast turnaround and free shipping

Bacteria Test Kits

Well water can be contaminated by bacteria, posing a risk to human health. One way to test for bacteria in well water is by using bacteria test kits. These kits are simple and inexpensive, making them a convenient option for homeowners.

Bacteria test kits work by using a color-changing strip to detect the presence of bacteria in the water. However, it’s important to note that these kits are not as comprehensive as laboratory well water tests. They may not detect all types of bacteria or provide information about the levels of bacteria in the water.

While bacteria test kits can provide a quick and convenient way to test for bacteria in well water, it’s important to remember that they should not be relied on as the sole method of testing. 

For a more comprehensive analysis of your well water, it’s recommended to be tested by a certified laboratory. Additionally, it’s essential to have your well water tested regularly to ensure that it remains safe for drinking and other uses.

Note: If the bacteria test kit detects the presence of bacteria in your well water, it’s imperative to take action to address the contamination. This may involve disinfecting the well, installing a water treatment system, or taking other measures to improve the safety and quality of your well water.

Final Thoughts On Well Water Safety

Unlike municipal water, private well water is unregulated. That leaves it to you to ensure the safety of your tap water. In general, groundwater is safe to consume, however, there are a variety of things that can contaminate your water. Many of the issues can be identified by sight, smell, or taste, but some are undetectable.

If you have concerns about the safety of your well water, it is always best to start by testing it. This way you get the peace of mind knowing exactly what’s in it. From there you can make the appropriate treatment decisions, and maybe it will be good just the way it is! With frequent testing and proper treatment, your well water will be safe to drink.

Frequently Asked Questions

How often should I test my well water?

It is recommended by the EPA to test your well water at least once annually. If there is nearby land development, a natural disaster, or changes in the taste or smell of the water, you should test it immediately.

Do I need a water filter for my private well?

If you have persistent contaminant issues in your well water like iron, sulfur, arsenic, or bacteria, a water filtration system is advisable. Not only can these issues cause adverse health effects, but they can also destroy your plumbing and appliances.

Can a water softener remove iron in well water?

Water softeners are able to remove approximately 1 PPM of iron from well water. If you have higher iron concentration you should get a specific iron removal system.

How do I know if my well water is safe to drink?

The only way to know if your well water is safe to drink is to test it regularly. Unlike city water, well water is not regulated so there is no way to look at water quality reports. There may be indications that your water quality is unsafe like bad tastes, odors, or discoloration, however, there are many contaminants that cannot be detected without proper testing.

      Enable registration in settings - general